Crustacea Glossary Complete List

Introduction

Joel Martin

jmartin@nhm.org

Because crustaceans are the most morphologically diverse group of animals on the planet, it comes as no surprise that there exists a huge number of morphological terms that are being used, or that have been used in the past, to describe them. As far as I have been able to determine, there is no single, standard glossary that is widely accepted. This is in part because different terms may mean different things for different groups of crustaceans, and in part because many existing glossaries tend to deal with selected subgroups or local faunas rather than with the taxon as a whole. More general glossaries do exist, and include McLaughlin's (1980) book on crustacean morphology and the glossary in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology (Moore and McCormick, 1969), upon which McLaughlin's glossary seems to have been largely based.

The following glossary includes terms and their definitions taken verbatim from a variety of sources. In all cases, the reference is given in brackets [ ] following the definition. In cases where the same term is defined in slightly different ways, both definitions are given and both references are listed. If the definitions are identical, I have simply cited both references after the definition. The references also include the name of the group or groups of crustaceans with which that reference primarily deals. For example, the terms taken from Williams (1984) deal only with the Decapoda, specifically those of the east coast of the United States, and this is so indicated. In some publications, the glossary also contains more adjectival terms and non-morphological entries, in addition to the strictly descriptive terms. I have opted to list everything found in the original publication, so that you will occasionally find unusual entries that seem to deal not with crustacean morphology in general but with descriptive terms or even more specialized topics (e.g., "Moult to puberty").

References to figures refer to original illustrations in the original publications, and not to any figures in this computer file. Perhaps some day we will be able to add appropriate figures to this file as well, as in some cases the figures are much more clear than the verbal definitions given.

Please be sure to cite the original source of the definition, and not this electronic file, as your source for these definitions.

I have not made any attempt to correct definitions, grammar, or spelling, preferring instead to list each entry as it originally appeared without inserting my own biases or judgment. An obvious exception with regard to biases is that my specialty is the Decapoda, and so initially most terms will have been taken from publications on this group. I hope that as time goes by and more definitions are received by other workers in the field, this bias will correct itself.

Some descriptive adjectival terms are included here as well, and definitions for some of these have been taken from the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, third edition [AHD].

If you are aware of other publications that contain good glossaries for crustaceans, please let us know so we can add them to our list.

Corrections? Additions? Comments? Please send them to me. I promise to at least consider them.

Joel Martin
jmartin@nhm.org


Definitions

Current as of 22 September 2017

Note that this is a web reference, and hence may change over time.
Please send us corrections.

This resource is found at: http://research.nhm.org/glossary

Abdomen

Abdominal aorta

Abdominal appendage

Abdominal ganglion

Abdominal limb

Abdominal process

Abdominal segment

Abdominal seta

Abdominal somite

Abdominal spine

Abreptor

Acanthopod

Acanthosoma

Accessory Antennule

Accessory flagellum

Accessory flexor muscle

Accessory gill

Accessory gland

Accessory heart

Accessory lobe

Accomodation groove

Acicle

Acron

Acumen

Acute

Adductor muscle (of carapace)

Adductor muscle scar pattern

Adductor pit

Adductor ridge

Adhesion pads

Adhesive gland

Adont hinge

Adrostal carina

Adrostral ridge

Adrostral sulcus

Aesthetasc seta

Aesthetascs

Afferent branchial channels

Afferent channels

Afferent respiratory channels

Ala

Aliform apophyses

Alimentary tract

Allometric growth

Ambulatory leg

Ambulosome

Ambulosomite

Amphidont hinge

Ampulla

Anal flap

Anal furca

Anal operculum

Anal papilla

Anal segment

Anal somite

Anal spines

Anameric

Anamorphic development

Androdioecy

Androgenic gland

Anecdysis

Angulate

Annulate seta, with setules

Annulate seta, without setules

Annulations

Annulus

Annulus ventralis

Anomura

Anomuran crabs

Anomuran seta

Antenna

Antennae

Antennal acicle

Antennal appendage

Antennal artery

Antennal carina

Antennal flagellum

Antennal gland

Antennal groove

Antennal muscle

Antennal notch

Antennal peduncle

Antennal region

Antennal scale

Antennal setae formula

Antennal spine

Antennary nerves

Antennula

Antennular artery

Antennular flagellum

Antennular fossette

Antennular lamella

Antennular lappet

Antennular peduncle

Antennular process

Antennular scale

Antennular somite

Antennular spine

Antennulary nerves

Antennulary part

Antennule

Antepenultimate

Anterioposterior axis

Anterior

Anterior aorta

Anterior chamber

Anterior element

Anterior head lobe

Anterior lappet

Anterior process

Anterior tubercle

Antero-lateral teeth

Anterolateral

Anterolateral angle

Anterolateral carina

Anterolateral margin

Anterolateral region

Anterolateral spine

Anterolateral tooth

Antimerodont hinge

Antizoea

Antorbital spine

Antrum

Anus

Aorta

Aortic valve

Apertural hook

Apertural spine

Aperture

Apex

Apical

Apicobasal ridge

Apicoumbonal ridge

Apodemal pit

Apodeme

Apophysis

Appendage

Appendix interna

Appendix masculina

Aquaculture

Area

Areola

Areolation

Armature

Artery

Arthrite

Arthrobranch

Arthrobranchia

Arthrobranchiae

Arthrodial membrane

Arthrophragm

Article

Articular furrow

Articular knob

Articular membrane

Articular ridge

Ascending

Atrium oris

Attachment disc

Attractor epimeralis muscle

Autotomy

Bar

Basal margin

Basal plate

Baseoendopod

Basi-ischium

Basial spine

Basicarinal angle

Basicerite

Basidorsal point

Basilateral angle

Basioccludent angle

Basiophthalmite

Basipod

Basis

Basiscutal angle

Basitergal angle

Bathypelagic

Beak

Beaked apex

Bellonci organ

Bender muscle

Biarticulate

Bidentate

Bifid

Biformes

Bifurcate

Bilobed

Bioluminescene

Biramous

Biserial branch

Biunguiculate

Bladder

Blind capsule

Blood pump

Blood rooms

Body articulation

Body chamber

Body of mandible

Body ring

Body somite

Boletate

Bopyridum

Boss

Brachium

Brachyura

Brachyuran crabs

Brain

Branchia

Branchial

Branchial apparatus

Branchial carina

Branchial cavity

Branchial chamber

Branchial count

Branchial filament

Branchial glands

Branchial lobe

Branchial plate

Branchial region

Branchiocardiac carina

Branchiocardiac groove

Branchiocardiac sulcus

Branchiostegal area

Branchiostegal carina

Branchiostegal spine

Branchiostegal sulcus

Branchiostegal-hepatic carina

Branchiostegite

Branchiostegites

Bristle

Brood chamber

Brood plate

Brood pouch

Brood sac

Brooding female

Broom seta

Brush

Brush-shaped organ

Buccal cavern

Buccal cavity

Buccal frame

Buccal groove

Bud

Bulb

Bulla

CB

CP

Calamus

Calathus

Calcar

Calceolus

Calcified inner lamella

Calyptopis

Canna

Caperation

Capitate

Capitulum

Carapace

Carapace angles

Carapace carina

Carapace carinae

Carapace costae

Carapace costellae

Carapace groove

Carapace grooves

Carapace growth line

Carapace horn

Carapace length

Carapace lirae

Carapace region

Carapace regions

Carapace spine

Carapace spines

Carapace teeth

Carapace tooth

Carcinisation

Cardiac

Cardiac notch

Cardiac region

Cardiac stomach

Cardiac tooth

Cardial sulcus

Cardiopyloric valve

Cardo

Caridean lobe

Caridean shrimps

Caridoid escape reaction

Caridoid facies

Carina

Carinal

Carinal latus

Carinal margin

Carinate

Carinolateral

Carpocerite

Carpochelate

Carpopod

Carpoprodus

Carpus

Catalepsis

Caudal

Caudal appendage

Caudal fan

Caudal filament

Caudal furca

Caudal process

Caudal rami

Caudal ramus

Caudal siphon

Caudal style

Cecum

Celation

Cement gland

Central projection

Cephalasome

Cephalic

Cephalic constriction

Cephalic dorsal length

Cephalic flexure

Cephalic hook

Cephalic shield

Cephalic somite

Cephalomere

Cephalon

Cephalosome

Cephalothoracic ganglion

Cephalothorax

Cercopod

Cercus

Cerebral ganglion

Cervical carina

Cervical furrow

Cervical groove

Cervical notch

Cervical sinus

Cervical spine

Cervical sulcus

Cervical suture

Chaetotaxy

Chalimus

Chela

Chelate

Cheliped

Chelipeds

Chirocerate

Chitin

Chromatophore

Cicatrix

Cincinnuli

Cincinnulus

Circumboreal

Circumesophageal connective

Circumesophageal ganglion

Circumesophageal nerve ring

Circumgenital body cavity

Circumgnathal

Circumoral connective

Cirral fan

Cirri

Cirrus

Clasper

Class

Clava

Clavate

Clavus

Claw

Cleaning setae

Closed petasma

Closed thelycum

Closer muscle

Clypeus

Colleteric gland

Comb

Comb collar

Combinatorial stages

Commensal

Compartment plate

Complemental plate

Complex

Compound eye

Compound rostrum

Compressed

Conchostracan carapace interspace

Conchostracan carapace interval

Conchostracan carapace ribs

Condyle

Conglobate

Conspecific

Contiguous

Conulus

Copepodid

Copepodite

Copulation

Copulatory limbs

Copulatory male

Copulatory organ

Copulatory pore

Copulatory stylet

Cor frontale

Cordate

Cormopod

Cormus

Cornea

Corneous

Corpus

Corpus mandibulae

Costa

Coupling seta

Coupling spine

Coxa

Coxal endite

Coxal exite

Coxal gill

Coxal gland

Coxal plate

Coxal spine

Coxepipod

Coxicerite

Coxite

Coxobasis

Coxopod

Crenulate

Crested

Crista

Crista dentata

Cristate

Crop

Crustaceans

Cryptoniscus

Ctenopod

Cuspate

Cuspidate seta

Cuticle

Cuticular

Cuticular combs

Cuticular organ

Cycladiformes

Cyclomorph

Cyclomorphism

Cyclops stage

Cyprid

Cypris adductor muscle

Cypris larva

Cypris stage

Cyrtopia

Cyrtopia stage

Dactyl

Dactylus

Decapod crustaceans

Decapodid stage

Decurved

Deflected

Deflected front

Deflexed front

Delayed development

Dendrobranch

Dendrobranchiate

Dendrobranchiate gill

Dentate

Denticle

Denticulate

Denticulate seta

Denticule

Depressed

Depressor muscle

Depressor muscle crests

Depressor muscle, lateral

Dermal

Dermal gland

Descending

Descending aorta

Detritus

Deuterocerebrum

Deutocerebrum

Diacresis

Diaeresis

Diapause

Digestive cecum

Digestive diverticulum

Digestive gland

Digitiform

Direct development

Distad

Distal

Distal fold

Distolateral

Distolateral projection

Distomedian projection

Distoventral projection

Diverticulum

Domicillium

Dorsad

Dorsal

Dorsal abdominal artery

Dorsal artery

Dorsal cecum

Dorsal keel

Dorsal organ

Dorsal orifice

Dorsal oval

Dorsal pit

Dorsal plate

Dorsal process

Dorsal spine

Dorsolateral

Dorsolateral carina

Dorsolateral lobule

Dorsolateral sulcus

Dorsolaterally

Dorsomedian carina

Dorsomedian groove

Dorsomedian lobule

Dorsoventral axis

Dorsoventral muscle

Dorsoventralis posterior

Dorsoventralis posterior muscle

Dorsum

Doublure

Duplicature

Dwarf male

Ecdysis

Ectosoma

Edge

Efferent branchial channels

Efferent channels

Efferent respiratory channels

Egestion

Egg

Egg nauplius

Egg sac

Egg string

Egg-bearing

Eighth limb

Ejaculatory duct

Elaphocaris

Element

Elongate

Elytra

Emarginate

End sac

Endite

Endognath

Endoparasite

Endophragm

Endophragmal skeleton

Endopleurite

Endopod

Endopodal lobe

Endopodite

Endoskeleton

Endosoma

Endosternite

Endostome

Entire

Ephippium

Epibenthic

Epibiont

Epibranchial

Epibranchial lobe

Epibranchial region

Epibranchial space

Epicaridium

Epidermis

Epigastric area

Epigastric lobes

Epigastric region

Epigastric spine

Epigastric tooth

Epigean

Epignath

Epimeral fold

Epimeral line

Epimere

Epimeron

Epimorphic development

Epipelagic

Epiphyte

Epipod

Epipodite

Episternum

Epistome

Epizoism

Erichthus larva

Esophageal connective

Esophagus

Esthetasc

Excavate

Excretory duct

Excretory organ

Excretory pore

Excretory tubule

Exhalant passage

Exite

Exognath

Exopod

Exopodite

Exorbital process

Exoskeleton

Explosive cells

Extended development

Extensor margin

Extensor muscle

Extensor surface

Externa

Eye

Eye tubercle

Eyes

Eyespine

Eyestalk

Falcate

Family

Fan seta

Fastigial plate

Fecundity

Fenestra

Fertilization duct

Fifth limb

Filament

Filamentary appendage

Filter chamber

Filtering apparatus

Finger

Fingers

Finishing arthrodial membrane

First antenna

First form male

First maxilla

First-stage lobster

Fissure

Fixed finger

Flabellum

Flagellar lobule

Flagellomere

Flagellum

Flange

Flange groove

Flexor margin