ARIP 2018

ARIP 2018

Page Contents

Advanced Research
Internship Program 2018

ARIP 2018 Syllabus

The following syllabus for the on-site events reflects the activities of ARIP 2018.

WORK
DAY
DATE

L = lecture
G = group discussion/activity
F = field collecting
T = tour/trip
R = research lab activity


ACTIVITY
On-Line July 9–14 Research reading
0 Su 15 July Arrivals in L.A.
G: Welcome dinner and orientation
1 Mo 16 July [9:00am] L: Introduction to the program (in Mark Ridley Thomas Center)
T: Behind-the-scenes tour at Natural History Museum of L.A. County
L: Molecular techniques, DNA, and PCR
2 Tu 17 July [6:30am] F: Intertidal collecting trip to San Pedro (sunrise 5:55am, tide -0.27 ft at 7:31am)
      White Point, 1801 W. Paseo Del Mar, San Pedro CA 90732
R: Sample sorting, identification, photography, and tissue sampling
3 We 18 July [8am] R: DNA extraction from specimens
G: Begin Materials & Methods written activity
T: California Science Center: IMAX movie (12:30pm), space shuttle (1:30pm), ecosystems
T: Visit USC campus and admissions (3:15pm – 4:45pm)
4 Th 19 July [8am] R: DNA amplification of specimen extracts
G: Continue Materials & Methods written activity
G: Research presentation topic selection
R: Sequencing gels (then PCR product sent out for sequencing)
5 Fr 20 July T: Visit Malibu, Pepperdine University
T: Santa Monica Mountains Recreation Area
6 Sa 21 July [9am] R: DNA sequence processing
G: Continue Materials & Methods written activity
T: Visit Marine Mammal Care Center
T: Visit and picnic lunch at Korean Friendship Bell
T: Visit Cabrillo Marine Aquarium
7 Su 22 July [9:30am] T: Visit La Brea Tar Pits, Farmers Market, and The Grove
T: Visit UCLA campus
8 Mo 23 July [9am] G: Research presentation discussion
F: Collecting at King Harbor marina floating dock
T: Seafood lunch and crustacea dissection
G: Scientific communication
G: Research presentation prep
T: Visit Butterfly Pavilion and exhibits at NHMLA
9 Tu 24 July [9am] G: Research presentation prep
[10am] T: Ichthyology and [10:30am] Herpetology collection tours
G: Materials & Methods section writing
R: Specimen data and specimen photo posting to Barcode of Life Database
10 We 25 July T: Day trip to Catalina Island — USC Wrigley Marine Science Center
11 Th 26 July [9am] R: Molecular sequence and tracefile posting to Barcode of Life Database
G: Research presentation prep and Materials & Methods revisions
G: Lunch in the lab
G: Materials and Methods section wrapup
G: Presentation preparation
12 Fr 27 July [9am] Organize for Research Presentations
10:00am – 11:30am Research presentations (6)
11:30am – 12:30pm Lunch
12:30am – 01:45pm Research presentations (5)
G: Writing good résumés, getting good letters of recommendation, U.S. colleges
04:00pm Closing ceremony
06:00pm Farewell dinner
13 Sa 28 July Departures

Reference Barcode Sequences

Every intern in the ARIP 2018 program was successfully able to register one or more reference barcode sequences in the international genetic barcode reference library Barcode of Life Database (BOLD). These are the database records for the reference data on specimens, collecting, genetic reference sequences, and sequencing tracefiles:
ARIP InternBOLD Reference
Barcode Record
Illustrative BarcodePreliminary Identification
Yena ChungARIR026-18Celleporaria
Yena ChungARIR023-18Watersipora subtorquata
Yena ChungARIR006-18Bryozoa
Shawn S LeeARIR008-18Arthropoda
NaWon YoonARIR024-18Ligia occidentalis
NaWon YoonARIR015-18Nereididae
NaWon YoonARIR009-18Neobernaya spadicea
Minyoung G KimARIR017-18Oniscidae
Minyoung G KimARIR012-18Sipunculidea
Minyoung G KimARIR011-18Ophiactis simplex
Kaitlyn Y JungARIR025-18Ligia occidentalis
Kaitlyn Y JungARIR014-18Nereididae
Kaitlyn Y JungARIR007-18Stenoplax conspicua
Hyojun SonARIR018-18Nuttallina fluxa
Hyojun SonARIR010-18Ligia
Hyeonbeen ShinARIR001-18Ligia
Eric KwonARIR019-18Ligia
Eric KwonARIR002-18Tanaidacea
Derek T MorimotoARIR029-18Ligia occidentalis
Derek T MorimotoARIR028-18Doriopsilla albopunctata
Derek T MorimotoARIR027-18Mesocentrotus franciscanus
Dasom KimARIR022-18Botrylloides
Dasom KimARIR016-18Styela plicata
Dasom KimARIR004-18Styela plicata
Andrew YoonARIR021-18Ligia
Andrew YoonARIR013-18Pagurus samuelis
Andrew YoonARIR003-18Nereis
Alec I L BurgeARIR020-18Oenonidae
Alec I L BurgeARIR005-18Ligia

Speaking Powerpoint

Some guidelines on presentations, a PDF version of the talk by Dean on Monday 23 July.

Sequencing Tracefiles

Here all all the sequencing tracefiles, listed by Molecular ID number:
6324_jgHCO.ab1 6324_jgLCO.ab1
6325_jgHCO.ab1 6325_jgLCO.ab1
6326_jgHCO.ab1 6326_jgLCO.ab1
6327_jgHCO.ab1 6327_jgLCO.ab1
6328_jgHCO.ab1 6328_jgLCO.ab1
6329_jgHCO.ab1 6329_jgLCO.ab1
6330_jgHCO.ab1 6330_jgLCO.ab1
6331_jgHCO.ab1 6331_jgLCO.ab1
6333_jgHCO.ab1 6333_jgLCO.ab1
6334_jgHCO.ab1 6334_jgLCO.ab1
6335_jgHCO.ab1 6335_jgLCO.ab1
6336_jgHCO.ab1 6336_jgLCO.ab1
6337_jgHCO.ab1 6337_jgLCO.ab1
6338_jgHCO.ab1 6338_jgLCO.ab1
6345_jgHCO.ab1 6345_jgLCO.ab1
6346_jgHCO.ab1 6346_jgLCO.ab1
6347_jgHCO.ab1 6347_jgLCO.ab1
6349_jgHCO.ab1 6349_jgLCO.ab1
6350_jgHCO.ab1 6350_jgLCO.ab1
6351_jgHCO.ab1 6351_jgLCO.ab1
6352_jgHCO.ab1 6352_jgLCO.ab1
6353_jgHCO.ab1 6353_jgLCO.ab1
6356_jgHCO.ab1 6356_jgLCO.ab1
6357_jgHCO.ab1 6357_jgLCO.ab1
6358_jgHCO.ab1 6358_jgLCO.ab1
6359_jgHCO.ab1 6359_jgLCO.ab1

These tracefiles are from specimens that we have previously collected and sequenced:
3235_jgLCO.ab1
3235_jgHCO.ab1
3631-Watersiporidae-Watersipora_A08-jgHCO2198.ab1
3631-Watersiporidae-Watersipora_A08-jgLCO1490.ab1
3632-Watersiporidae-Watersipora-subtorquata_A09-jgHCO2198.ab1
3632-Watersiporidae-Watersipora-subtorquata_A09-jgLCO1490.ab1
3635-Lepraliellidae-Celleporaria-brunnea_A12-jgHCO2198.ab1
3635-Lepraliellidae-Celleporaria-brunnea_A12-jgLCO1490.ab1
3641-Bryozoa_B06-jgHCO2198.ab1
3641-Bryozoa_B06-jgLCO1490.ab1
3670-Bugulidae-Bugula-neritina_D11-jgHCO2198.ab1
3670-Bugulidae-Bugula-neritina_D11-jgLCO1490.ab1
4310-Chordata-Tunicata-Ascidiacea_B03-jgHCO2198.ab1
4310-Chordata-Tunicata-Ascidiacea_B03-jgLCO1490.ab1
4313-Chordata-Tunicata-Ascidiacea_B06-jgHCO2198.ab1
4313-Chordata-Tunicata-Ascidiacea_B06-jgLCO1490.ab1
4327-Chordata-Tunicata-Ascidiacea_C08-jgHCO2198.ab1
4327-Chordata-Tunicata-Ascidiacea_C08-jgLCO1490.ab1
4328-Chordata-Tunicata-Ascidiacea_C09-jgHCO2198.ab1
4328-Chordata-Tunicata-Ascidiacea_C09-jgLCO1490.ab1
4342-Chordata-Tunicata-Ascidiacea_D11-jgHCO2198.ab1
4342-Chordata-Tunicata-Ascidiacea_D11-jgLCO1490.ab1
4343-Chordata-Tunicata-Ascidiacea_D12-jgHCO2198.ab1
4343-Chordata-Tunicata-Ascidiacea_D12-jgLCO1490.ab1

Specimen Information

This is a table of specimen and extract information for all the specimens we are working with:
Collection ID Specimen ID BOLD Museum ID Molecular Extract ID Taxon
RW16.0633634LACM:DISCO:36243235Porifera: Demospongiae: Suberitida
RW16.0567703LACM:DISCO:77033631Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomatida: Lepraliellidae: Celleporaria
RW16.0593582LACM:DISCO:35823632Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomatida: Watersiporidae: Watersipora subtorquata
RW16.0593583LACM:DISCO:35833635Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomatida: Lepraliellidae: Celleporaria brunnea
RW16.0566013LACM:DISCO:60133641Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomatida: Lepraliellidae: Celleporaria
RW16.2937012LACM:DISCO:70123670Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomatida: Bugulidae: Bugula neritina
RW17.0607324LACM:DISCO:73244310Chordata: Tunicata: Ascidiacea: Phlebobranchia: Cionidae: Ciona savignyi
RW16.3506599LACM:DISCO:65994313Chordata: Tunicata: Ascidiacea: Stolidobranchia: Styelidae: Botrylloides violaceaus
RW16.0566018LACM:DISCO:60184327Chordata: Tunicata: Ascidiacea: Phlebobranchia: Cionidae: Ciona savignyi
RW16.0633621LACM:DISCO:36214328Chordata: Tunicata: Ascidiacea: Stolidobranchia: Styellidae: Styela plicata
RW16.0633617LACM:DISCO:36174342Chordata: Tunicata: Ascidiacea: Stolidobranchia: Styellidae: Styela plicata
RW16.0633620LACM:DISCO:36204343Chordata: Tunicata: Ascidiacea: Stolidobranchia: Styelidae: Botrylloides violaceaus
1967311425LACM:DISCO:114256324Echinodermata: Echinozoa: Echinoidea: Camarodonta: Strongylocentrotidae: Strongylocentrotus franciscanus
1967311426LACM:DISCO:114266325Mollusca: Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia
1967311500LACM:DISCO:115006326Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Peracarida: Isopoda: Oniscidea: Ligiidae: Ligia
1967311509LACM:DISCO:115096327Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Peracarida: Isopoda: Oniscidea: Ligiidae: Ligia
1967411450LACM:DISCO:114506328Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea
1967411442LACM:DISCO:114426329Annelida: Sipuncula
1967311424LACM:DISCO:114246330Mollusca: Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Littorinimorpha: Cypraeidae: Neobernaya spadicea
1967411459LACM:DISCO:114596331Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Decapoda: Pleocyemata: Anomura: Paguroidea
1967311511LACM:DISCO:115116332Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Peracarida: Isopoda: Oniscidea: Ligiidae: Ligia
1967311422LACM:DISCO:114226333Mollusca: Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Littorinimorpha: Cypraeidae: Neobernaya spadicea
1967511460LACM:DISCO:114606334Annelida: Polychaeta
1967311506LACM:DISCO:115066335Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Peracarida: Isopoda: Oniscidea: Ligiidae: Ligia
1967411444LACM:DISCO:114446336Annelida: Polychaeta: Nereididae
1967411455LACM:DISCO:114556337Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Decapoda: Pleocyemata: Anomura: Paguroidea
1967311507LACM:DISCO:115076338Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Peracarida: Isopoda: Oniscidea: Ligiidae: Ligia
1967411440LACM:DISCO:114406339Annelida: Polychaeta: Nereididae
1967311510LACM:DISCO:115106340Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Peracarida: Isopoda: Oniscidea: Ligiidae: Ligia
1967411441LACM:DISCO:114416341Platyhelminthes
1967611481LACM:DISCO:114816342Chordata: Tunicata: Ascidiacea
1967611480LACM:DISCO:114806343Mollusca: Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia
1967311508LACM:DISCO:115086344Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Peracarida: Isopoda: Oniscidea: Ligiidae: Ligia
1967311420LACM:DISCO:114206345Mollusca: Polyplacophora
1967411443LACM:DISCO:114436346Annelida: Polychaeta
1967311505LACM:DISCO:115056347Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Peracarida: Isopoda: Oniscidea: Ligiidae: Ligia
1967411452LACM:DISCO:114526348Platyhelminthes
1967511463LACM:DISCO:114636349Mollusca: Polyplacophora
1967311503LACM:DISCO:115036350Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Peracarida: Isopoda: Oniscidea: Ligiidae: Ligia
1967411451LACM:DISCO:114516351Arthropoda: Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Copepoda: Harpacticoida
1967511461LACM:DISCO:114616352Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Peracarida: Tanaidacea
1967311504LACM:DISCO:115046353Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Peracarida: Isopoda: Oniscidea: Ligiidae: Ligia
1967511462LACM:DISCO:114626354Nemertea
1967411453LACM:DISCO:114536355Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Peracarida: Amphipoda: Gammaridea: Gammaroidea
1967311502LACM:DISCO:115026356Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Peracarida: Isopoda: Oniscidea: Ligiidae: Ligia
1967311501LACM:DISCO:115016357Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eumalacostraca: Peracarida: Isopoda: Oniscidea: Ligiidae: Ligia
1967411454LACM:DISCO:114546358Annelida: Polychaeta
1967311421LACM:DISCO:114216359Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea

Specimen Images

Here are all the images we took of the specimens, listed by their specimen ID numbers:
3582 3583 3617 3620 3621 3624 6013 6018 6599 7012 7324 7703 11420 11421 11422 11424 11425 11426 11440 11441 11442 11443 11444 11450 11451 11452 11453 11454 11455 11459 11460 11461 11462 11463 11480 11481 11500 11501 11502 11503 11504 11505 11506 11507 11508 11509 11510 11511

Collection Information

This is a table of collecting information for all the specimens we are working with:
Collection IDBOLD Collection Event IDCollection information
RW16.056DISCO-CollectionID:RW16.056Eastern Pacific, USA, California, Los Angeles County, Redondo Beach, King Harbor, 33.842°N 118.391°W, floating dock, scrapings, 0.3 m, preserved in 95% ethanol, 19 Jul 2016, MBPC 16925, Coll. ARIP2016: I. Lee, G. Kim, J. Jang, J. Lee, G. Bae, E. Nam, Y. Lee; R. Wetzer, N.D. Pentcheff, A. Wall, K. Balakahovsky, Collection ID: RW16.056
RW16.059DISCO-CollectionID:RW16.059Eastern Pacific, USA, California, Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, Redondo Beach, King Harbor, Redondo Beach Marina, Basin III, 33.842°N 118.392°W, side of floating docks, paint scraper, preserved in 95% ethanol, 13 Jul 2016, MBPC 16923, Coll. L. Harris, R. Smart, M. Ordeñana, L. Higgins, Collection ID: RW16.059
RW16.063DISCO-CollectionID:RW16.063California, Los Angeles County, Port of Los Angeles, San Pedro Marina, 33.736°N 118.278°W, floating docks and hanging ropes/cables, hand, 0 – 9 m, fixed and preserved in 95% ethanol, 8 Sep 2016, MBPC 16931, Coll. L. Harris, R.Wetzer, N.D. Pentcheff, Collection ID: RW16.063
RW16.293DISCO-CollectionID:RW16.293California, Los Angeles County, San Pedro, Inner Cabrillo Beach, 33.711°N 118.283°W, sand, Ulva, and various other algae, under rocks, seine, hand, and dip net, 0.3 m, fixed and preserved in 95% ethanol, 13 Oct 2016, Station 1, 2, 3, MBPC 17657, Coll. R. Wetzer, L. Harris, N.D. Pentcheff, Collection ID: RW16.293
RW16.350DISCO-CollectionID:RW16.350Eastern Pacific, USA, California, Los Angeles County, Port of Los Angeles, San Pedro Marina, 33.736°N 118.278°W, floating docks, paint scraper, hand collected, 0 m, fixed and preserved in 95% ethanol, 13 Dec 2016, MBPC 17842, Coll. R.Wetzer, N.D.Pentcheff, L.Harris, A.Wall, K.Omura, A.Hoy, Collection ID: RW16.350
RW17.060DISCO-CollectionID:RW17.060Eastern Pacific, USA, California, Los Angeles County, Redondo Beach, King Harbor Marina, ~33.85°N ~118.4°W, dock fouling, paint scraper, hand, preserved in 95% ethanol, 16 Sep 2017, MBPC 18459, Coll. R. Wetzer, K. Omura, L. Harris, N.D. Pentcheff, A. Wall, R. Smart, M. Ordenana, J. Wall, Collection ID: RW17.060
19673DISCO-CollectionID:19673Eastern Pacific, USA, California, Los Angeles County, San Pedro, White Point, 33.714°N 118.317°W, intertidal under and on rocks and cobble, hand, fixed and preserved in 95% ethanol, 17 Jul 2018, Coll. R. Wetzer, Collection ID: 19673
19674DISCO-CollectionID:19674Eastern Pacific, USA, California, Los Angeles County, San Pedro, White Point, 33.714°N 118.317°W, algal wash, hand, 0 m, fixed and preserved in 95% ethanol, 17 Jul 2018, Coll. R. Wetzer, Collection ID: 19674
19675DISCO-CollectionID:19675Eastern Pacific, USA, California, Los Angeles County, San Pedro, White Point, 33.714°N 118.317°W, barnacle scrapings, hand, paint scraper, 0 m, fixed and preserved in 95% ethanol, 17 Jul 2018, Coll. Regina Wetzer, ARIP 2018, Collection ID: 19675
19676DISCO-CollectionID:19676Eastern Pacific, USA, California, Los Angeles County, San Pedro, Los Angeles Harbor, Cabrillo Beach boat launch, 33.713°N 118.283°W, under floating dock, hand, paint scraper, 0.3 m, fixed and preserved in 95% ethanol, 17 Jul 2018, Coll. Regina Wetzer, ARIP 2018, Collection ID: 19676

First Week Online Activities

During this first, online week of the ARIP program, we have two goals. One is to familiarize you with reading real research papers: the scientific literature. The other goal is to familiarize you with some of the genetic biodiversity concepts you’ll be working with during the on-site two weeks of the internship.

Understanding the content of these papers is very important for doing well in the internship. You will be expected to know these concepts and be able to work with them once you are here. We know they are complex ideas, and we know that learning them directly from the actual research literature (not popular articles) is difficult. But that’s why you are participating in this internship. You will work hard. In return, we will work hard to give you all the help and information you need to do well — that is why we are participating.

The way this will work is that there will be a series of daily reading assignments. Each day you will be required to complete a brief quiz about the reading for that day. That quiz will be available for only 24 hours — you must check in here and complete the quiz sometime during the 24 hour window for that day’s reading.

To be completely open with you: the purpose of those quizzes is not to grade or rank your performance, but to ensure that you do some of the reading each day. If you could leave it all to one session at the end, there is no way you could get good comprehension!

All the materials are available to you now (see links lower on this page), so feel free to read ahead! But, again, you will have to return to this web page each day to complete each day’s questions on the assigned day.

What if I have questions about the material or the assignment?
Feel free to send email with questions to me (Dean Pentcheff). I’m managing the online portion of the course (I’ll also be participating in leading the on-site part). You can reach me at: pentcheff@gmail.com .

What if I will be unavailable or travelling on one or more of the assignment days?
Send me an email (to pentcheff@gmail.com) and I’ll get the day’s questions to you by email so that you can complete them on a different day.

What time of day will the day’s questions become available (and when will they disappear)?
Each day’s questions will become available at 00:01 (one minute into the day) on the day of the assignment, and will close at 23:59 (one minute before midnight) on the day of the assignment. All dates and times will be in Pacific Daylight Time (PDT UTC-7).

Online Day 1 (Monday) July 9 — Reading a scientific paper

We‘re starting easily. Today there are two online articles we‘d like you to read that will help you learn how to (constructively) read a scientific paper.

Reading 1: How to read a scientific paper

Reading 2: How to read and understand a scientific paper: a guide for non-scientists

Read both of these to prepare yourself for reading the scientific papers over the next few days. These guides refer to two kinds of scientific papers: primary research papers and review papers. Most of the papers we‘ll have you read are review papers — they summarize the work reported in many other papers. Because of that, they will not be broken into the structure of a typical primary research paper (Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion). However, the analysis you will need to do as you read (for example, looking up every single word you don‘t understand as you read) is the same for primary and review papers.

This quiz is now closed.

Online Day 2 (Tuesday) July 10 — Genetic barcoding

“Genetic barcoding” is a technique being applied to biodiversity research, and is a core technology you will use and learn in this internship. These two papers give a bit of perspective on the technique. The first was written over a decade ago as barcoding was just being developed. The second looks back over the decade of development and summarizes how the field has grown.

Reading 1: Savolainen, V., R. S. Cowan, A. P. Vogler, G. K. Roderick, and R. Lane. 2005. Towards writing the encyclopaedia of life: an introduction to DNA barcoding. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 360:1805–1811.

Reading 2: Hebert, P. D. N., P. M. Hollingsworth, and M. Hajibabaei. 2016. From writing to reading the encyclopedia of life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 371:20150321.

This quiz is now closed.

Online Day 3 (Wednesday) July 11 — Metabarcoding entire communities

One of the really exiting ways we can use genetic barcodes is to describe entire marine communities based just on seawater samples (by sequencing and identifying the DNA that organisms shed into the seawater). This paper is a recent example of that kind of work. (Note that this is a primary research paper, a report of novel work, unlike the rest of the papers we are having you read, which are review papers.)

Reading: Kelly, R. P., J. L. O’Donnell, N. C. Lowell, A. O. Shelton, J. F. Samhouri, S. M. Hennessey, B. E. Feist, and G. D. Williams. 2016. Genetic signatures of ecological diversity along an urbanization gradient. PeerJ 4:e2444.

This quiz is now closed.

Online Day 4 (Thursday) July 12 — Barcoding and biomonitoring

A key application of barcoding, particularly of entire communities, is the potential it has for letting us monitor biological changes more frequently, more cheaply, and in more detail than traditional techniques.

Reading: Thomsen, P. F., and E. Willerslev. 2015. Environmental DNA — An emerging tool in conservation for monitoring past and present biodiversity. Biological Conservation 183:4–18.

This quiz is now closed.

Online Day 5 (Friday) July 13 — Barcoding and taxonomy

The science of taxonomy is the discipline of classifying organisms into some sort of understandable system. It has taken us a couple of centuries to name and describe about one million species. We think there are something like 10–100 million species on earth. Clearly, we have a lot of work to do. These two papers give a little perspective on how genetic barcoding may help us.

Reading 1: Page, R. D. M. 2016. DNA barcoding and taxonomy: dark taxa and dark texts. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 371:20150334.

Reading 2: Blaxter, M. 2016. Imagining Sisyphus happy: DNA barcoding and the unnamed majority. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 371:20150329.

This quiz is now closed.



Thanks for participating in the online week! We will see you soon in Los Angeles.